Molecular Biology & Microbial Genetics

UNIT-I: INTRODUCTION TO DNA
Nucleic acids- Structure and properties, Repetitive DNA, DNA renaturation kinetics. Forms of DNA and DNA supercoiling.DNA replication in prokaryotes: creation of replication fork, various models of DNA replication, enzymes involved in DNA replication.

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic gene structure, , Transcription machinery, mRNA processing;
Reverse transcription; Genetic code and mechanism of translation, Post-tranlational modifications in proteins. Signal sequences and protein transport.

UNIT-II: Gene Regulation
Covalent modification of chromatin, Histone code hypothesis, Chromatin remodeling complexes, heterochromatization, Regulation of gene expression in bacteria (lac operon, trp operon) and eukaryotes; RNA dependent gene silencing.

UNIT-III: DNA MUTATIONS

Types of mutations, molecular basis of spontaneous and induced mutations, various physical and

chemical mutagenic agents, site directed mutagenesis, DNA repair mechanisms. Ames test;

Environmental mutagenesis and toxicity testing; Induction of mutation in Neurospora crassa and yeast, cytoplasmic inheritance and biochemical mutants. Transposable elements and mechanisms of transposition. Uses of transposons in genetic analyses.

UNIT- IV: BACTERIAL RECOMBINATION

Bacterial Gene Transfer: gradual development of the concept, Transduction, complementation, Conjugation; Genetic recombination- Bacteriophages; synapsis of homologous duplexes,

breakages and re-union; role of Rec A in recombination; Legitimate and illegitimate recombination, gene conversion; Bacterial transformation, Host cell restriction, & Transfection

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